A day of Yoga at Ban Sen Yuku, Brussels, Japanese Martial Art Centre with Luke Ketterhagen of the Himalayan Institute in Honesdale Pennsylvania, USA - 6 October 2019
The day’s topic was Freedom from Stress : The Path to Joy.
In a pleasant venue - a big hall with a padded floor , ideal for Yoga – and a large refreshment area next to it , Luke welcomed around 20 students who had come from Germany, France, Holland, UK and Belgium. He talked about the goals of Yoga in general and the theme of the day specifically : seek and find balance , strength, love and connection with others , also to serve the BIG HI GOAL for 2019/20 : The Year long Meditation (YLM) . He spoke about the idea of getting out of one’s own way, being aware of ‘guardedness’. It’s not always easy to be open, or to allow ourselves to be vulnerable.
After a guided guided relaxation in crocodile pose, we practised an enhancing Asana session with emphasis on opening and listening to our bodies.
The morning concluded with a guided meditation session. We all shared and enjoyed a delicious lunch with vegetable soup, bread, Kedgeree and quiche prepared by Claire, Ursula and Beatrice.
The afternoon started with chanting a few verses from the Morning Prayers. The energy this created was very special. I find it always amazing what a ‘unifying ‘ effect chanting has on a group. Then Luke showed and gave us some props and aids for a comfortable meditation posture which varies from student to student. After a very practical ‘hands on partner’ Pranayama exercise , we moved into some standing limbering exercises . From these I personally found the relaxing neck rolls most beneficial and helpful. Another meditation session finished our day’s practice.
The day rounded off with delicious hot Chai made by Luke , accompanied by a yummy cake made by Ursula. A wonderful day !!
A big THANK YOU to Claire and Ursula who did an excellent job in organising the event and who made sure everybody felt welcome. I hope that we do keep up the connection with the colleagues in Brussels . The Eurostar makes it really easy to get there and we are looking forward to welcoming some of our friends to our events here in the UK, be it a day retreat or our long weekend in Chigwell in May 2020.
Eckhart Tolle at the Royal Albert Hall - Tuesday 1 October 2019
Eckhart Tolle is a spiritual teacher and author who was born in Germany and educated at the Universities of London and Cambridge. At the age of 29, a profound inner transformation radically changed the course of his life. The next few years were devoted to understanding, integrating, and deepening that transformation, which marked the beginning of an intense inward journey. Later, he began to work in London with individuals and small groups as a counselor and spiritual teacher. Eckhart shares his time between British Columbia, Canada, and California. Eckhart Tolle is the author of the #1 New York Times bestseller The Power of Now (translated into over 50 languages) and the highly acclaimed follow-up A New Earth, which are widely regarded as two of the most influential spiritual books of our time.
Eckhart’s profound yet simple teachings have already helped countless people throughout the world find inner peace and greater fulfillment in their lives. At the core of the teachings lies the transformation of consciousness, a spiritual awakening that he sees as the next step in human evolution. An essential aspect of this awakening consists in transcending our ego-based state of consciousness. This is a prerequisite not only for personal happiness but also for the ending of violence on our planet.Eckhart Tolle's event at The Royal Albert Hall was a four-hour 'mini-retreat' comprising of two sessions during which he just sat and talked, and a 30 minute meditation led by his life-partner Kim Eng, which saw a full house sitting in silence!
A memorable evening; below are some of the things we took away :
(i) Most people were there because of a universal awakening that is taking place.
(ii) There are two persons in us, one who is aware, and one who thinks.
(iii) Listen to the spaces between words. Space consciousness and form consciousness.
(iv) Egoic tendencies. The Ego is never satisfied with what it gets for long.
(v) Distinguish between what is and one’s commentary about it.
(vi) The Ego likes complaining. But being uncomfortable on the tube doesn’t mean you have to be unhappy!
(vii) The Ego builds a self-image, but it is fragile.
(viii) The Egoic pain body feeds on painful relationships – in families or at work etc.
(ix) The Ego is always focused on ‘the next thing’ – misses the now.
(x) You are enlightened already – but don’t let the ego assume that!
(xi) Simple alert presence shows the unity with all.(xii) The 'Cross' - living in the ‘horizontal’ - on the surface / in the mind etc but also the ‘vertical’ - deeper ‘being’, 'Presence' (xiii) Spend time just observing people and scenes non-judgementally.
Gong Bath MeditationGong meditation is a unique type of sound practice that involves using therapeutic gong sounds and vibrations to bring about healing. This practice is also sometimes referred to as a “gong bath” because participants are “bathed” in meditation gong sound waves. The goal of “gong meditation” is usually therapeutic, whereas mindfulness meditation has many therapeutic benefits, but its deeper goal is awareness and non-judgmental appreciation of the present moment. Sound therapy has long been used to manage a broad range of health conditions. The treatments are based on the understanding that all forms of matter – including our body’s cells – vibrate at different frequencies. Factors such as stress, depression and disease cause cells and organs within our bodies to vibrate at non-optimal frequencies.
How is gong meditation practised?Most people who participate in gong baths are lying down on meditation mats. Add a pillow and a blanket and all you’ll need to do is rest in a comfortable position, relax and close your eyes. Your instructor will guide you through the session. Initially, the gong is played very softly; as the meditation session progresses, the volume is gradually increased. Since the purpose of the meditation gong sound is healing, the volume is never upped to uncomfortable levels. For more information, search 'Gong Bath Meditation'
Himalayan Institute Ealing
Study / Retreat Day - Saturday 21 September at the Friends' Meeting House, Ealing - 'Harmony in Relationships'.On a beautifully sunny early Autumn day some 18 or so like-minded souls gathered at our regular spiritual home for a day focused on the very basic but essential notion of nurturing harmonious relationships with our fellows in all kinds of contexts - friends, family, community and, not least, with ourselves. Following initial relaxation and meditation practice, John Howell, Director of Studies, spoke about the source of happiness, within us, and later discussed why relationships can sometimes become difficult, and ways of approaching issues from a yogic perspective. The morning session concluded with a real treat, a GONG BATH meditation led by Rosella Barbabella, a new experience for many, and invigorating for all. Lunch was taken in outside in the sunshine , in the peaceful haven of the FMH garden. The afternoon session began with chanting of 'The Prayer of Harmony' in Sanskrit, led by Ania Skigalska, and then John Howell picked up the theme for the day again, talking about 'Relationships as Spiritual Practice', referencing both ancient and modern teachings, including the Yoga Sutras and Eckhart Tolle, as guides. After adjourning outside again for tea and coffee, we finished the day by listening to a recording of Peter Glover, founder of the Himalayan Institute in the UK, presenting the 'Travelling Exercise' meditation practice. A thoroughly inspiring, enlightening and enjoyable day, and so pleasing to be able to welcome so many good friends and fellow-travellers.
Our next Study Day is Saturday 16th November - Ayurveda with the well-known practitioner Angela Hope-Murray.
Om Shanti, Shanti, Shanti
The Mandukya Upanishad
The Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad (Sanskrit: माण्डूक्य उपनिषद्, Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad) is the shortest of all the Upanishads, and is assigned to Atharvaveda.It is listed as number 6 in the Muktikā canon of 108 Upanishads.
It is in prose, consisting of twelve terse verses, and is associated with a Rig Vedic school of scholars. It discusses the syllable Aum, presents the theory of four states of consciousness, and asserts the existence and nature of Atman (Soul, Self).
aum ity etad akṣaram idam sarvam, tasyopavyākhyānam
bhūtam bhavad bhaviṣyad iti sarvam auṁkāra Eva
yac cānyat trikālātītaṁ tad apy auṁkāra Eva.
1. OM! – This Imperishable Word is the whole of this visible universe. Its explanation is as follows: What has become, what is becoming, what will become, – verily, all of this is OM. And what is beyond these three states of the world of time, – that too, verily, is OM.
sarvaṁ hy etad brahma, ayam ātmā brahma
so’yam ātmā catuṣ-pāt.
2. All this, verily, is Brahman. The Self is Brahman. This Self has four quarters.
jāgarita sthāno bahiṣ-prajñaḥ saptāṅga
ekonaviṁśati-mukhaḥ sthūla-bhug vaiśvānaraḥ
3. The first quarter is Vaiśvānara. Its field is the waking state. Its consciousness is outward-turned. It is seven-limbed and nineteen-mouthed. It enjoys gross objects.
svapna-sthāno’ntaḥ-prajñaḥ saptāṅga ekonavimśati-mukhaḥ
pravivikta-bhuk taijaso dvītiyaḥ pādah.
4. The second quarter is taijasa. Its field is the dream state. Its consciousness is inward-turned. It is seven-limbed and nineteen-mouthed. It enjoys subtle objects.
yatra supto na kaṁ cana kāmaṁ kāmayate
na kaṁ cana svapnam paśyati tat suṣuptam
suṣupta-sthāna ekī-bhūtaḥ prajñānā-ghana evānanda-mayo
hy ānanda-bhuk ceto-mukhaḥ prājñas tṛtīyaḥ pādah.
5. The third quarter is prājña, where one asleep neither desires anything nor beholds any dream: that is deep sleep. In this field of dreamless sleep, one becomes undivided, an undifferentiated mass of consciousness, consisting of bliss and feeding on bliss. His mouth is consciousness.
eṣa sarveśvaraḥ eṣa sarvajñaḥ, eṣo’ntāryami,
eṣa yoniḥ sarvasya prabhavāpyayau hi bhūtānām.
6. This is the Lord of All; the Omniscient; the Indwelling Controller; the Source of All. This is the beginning and end of all beings.
nāntaḥ-prajñam, na bahiṣ prajñam, nobhayataḥ-prajñam
na prajnañā-ghanam, na prajñam, nāprajñam;
adṛṣtam, avyavahārayam, agrāhyam, alakṣaṇam,
acintyam, avyapadeśyam, ekātma-pratyaya-sāram,
prapañcopaśamam, śāntam, śivam, advaitam,
caturtham manyante, sa ātmā, sa vijñeyaḥ.
7. That is known as the fourth quarter: neither inward-turned nor outward-turned consciousness, nor the two together; not an indifferentiated mass of consciousness; neither knowing, nor unknowing; invisible, ineffable, intangible, devoid of characteristics, inconceivable, indefinable, its sole essence being the consciousness of its own Self; the coming to rest of all relative existence; utterly quiet; peaceful; blissful: without a second: this is the Ātman, the Self; this is to be realised.
so’yam ātmādhyakṣaram auṁkaro’dhimātram pādā mātrā
mātrāś ca pādā akāra ukāra makāra iti.
8. This identical Ātman, or Self, in the realm of sound is the syllable OM, the above described four quarters of the Self being identical with the components of the syllable, and the components of the syllable being identical with the four quarters of the Self. The components of the Syllable are A, U, M.
jāgarita-sthāno vaiśvānaro’kāraḥ prathamā
mātrā’pter ādimattvād vā’pnoti ha vai
sarvān kāmān ādiś ca bhavati ya evaṁ veda.
9. Vaiśvānara, whose field is the waking state, is the first sound, A, because this encompasses all, and because it is the first. He who knows thus, encompasses all desirable objects; he becomes the first.
svapna-sthānas taijasa ukāro dvitīyā
mātrotkarṣāt ubhayatvādvotkarṣati ha vai
jñāna-saṁtatiṁ samānaś ca bhavati
nāsyābrahma-vit-kule bhavati ya evam veda.
10. Taijasa, whose field is the dream state, is the second sound, U, because this is an excellence, and contains the qualities of the other two. He who knows thus, exalts the flow of knowledge and becomes equalised; in his family there will be born no one ignorant of Brahman.
suṣupta-sthānaḥ prājño makāras tṛtīya mātrā
miter apīter vā minoti ha vā idaṁ
sarvam apītiś ca bhavati ya evaṁ veda.
11.Prājña, whose field is deep sleep, is the third sound, M, because this is the measure, and that into which all enters. He who knows thus, measures all and becomes all.
amātraś caturtho’vyavahāryaḥ prapañcopaśamaḥ sivo’dvaita
evam auṁkāra ātmaiva, saṁviśaty ātmanā’tmānaṁ ya evaṁ
veda ya evaṁ veda.
12. The fourth is soundless: unutterable, a quieting down of all relative manifestations, blissful, peaceful, non-dual. Thus, OM is the Ātman, verily. He who knows thus, merges his self in the Self; – yea, he who knows thus.
Om śantih; śantih; śantih
The Threefold Purpose of Meditation: ·
- First, to calm the conscious mind
- Second, to teach us how not to be disturbed by the flood of images arising from the subconscious mind
- Third, to go beyond the conscious and subconscious mind to the highest state of samadhi
Freedom from the Bondage of Karma, p. 27
Six things you will need to learn in order to meditate:
- How to relax the body
- How to sit in a comfort, steady posture for meditation
- How to make your breathing process serene
- How to witness the objects in the train of the mind
- How to inspect the quality of thoughts and learn to promote or strengthen those which are positive and helpful in your growth
- How not to allow yourself to become disturbed in any situation, whether you judge it to be either bad or good
Meditation and Its Practice, pp. 13-14
Five steps of a meditation session:
- First Step: Preparing for a Meditation Session
- Second Step: Relax and Stretch the Muscles
- Third Step: Relaxation Practices to Prepare for Meditation
- Fourth Step: Calming the Mind and Nervous System with Breathing Practices
- Fifth Step: Sitting in Meditation
Meditation and Its Practice, pp. 18-22
Read more at :
1.36. Concentration may also be attained by fixing the mind upon the Inner Light, which is beyond sorrow.
The ancient yogis believed that there was an actual centre of spiritual consciousness, called "the lotus of the heart," situated between the abdomen and the thorax, which could be revealed in deep meditation. They claimed that it had the form of a lotus and that it shone with an inner light. It was said to be "beyond sorrow," since those who saw it were filled with an extraordinary sense of peace and joy.
From the very earliest times, the masters of yoga emphasized the importance of meditating upon this lotus. "The supreme heaven shines in the lotus of the heart," says the Kaivalya Upanishad, "Those who struggle and aspire may enter there. Retire into solitude. Seat yourself on a clean spot in an erect posture, with the head and neck in a staight line. Control all sense-organs. Bow down in devotion to your teacher. Then enter the lotus of the heart and meditate there on the presence of Brahman—the pure, the infinite, the blissful. -
And in the Chandogya Upanishad we read:
Within the city of Brahman, which is the body, there is the heart, and within the heart there is a little house. This house has the shape of a lotus, and within it dwells that which is to be sought after, inquired about, and realized.
What, then, is that which dwells within this little house, this lotus of the heart? What is it that must be sought after, inquired about, and realized?
Even so large as the universe outside is the universe within the lotus of the heart. Within it are heaven and earth, the sun, the moon, the lightning and all the stars. Whatever is in the macrocosm is in this microcosm also.
All things that exist, all beings and all desires, are in the city of Brahman; what, then, becomes of them when old age approaches and the body dissolves in death?
Though old age comes to the body, the lotus of the heart does not grow old. It does not die with the death of the body. The lotus of the heart, where Brahman resides in all his glory—that, and not the body, is the true city of Brahman. Brahman, dwelling therein, is untouched by any deed, ageless, deathless, free from grief, free from hunger and from thirst. His desires are right desires, and his desires are fulfilled.
Dwelling in the Lotus Heart: A Meditation Practice
By visualizing your heart as a lotus flower, you can begin to create a safe, comfortable place for your mind to settle.
In yoga and meditation, the heart can be visualized as a lotus flower unfolding at the center of the chest. Like a lotus that contracts and opens according to the light, our spiritual heart can be awakened through various yoga practices from asana practice to Pranayama, chanting, and meditation.
The following meditation focuses the awareness on the seat of one's lotus heart. For some, this will be a very natural sanctum to rest the awareness. Others may observe that the restless nature of the mind does not subside so easily. This meditation serves two purposes: First, to learn to focus the mind on any object as an internal seat, and second, to receive the healing benefits of being connected to the heart as a place of unconditional love.
To begin, find a comfortable posture for meditation (seated on a cushion or blanket, in a chair, or against a wall). You may find it helpful to set a timer for 10, 20, or 30 minutes so you can deepen your meditation without wondering about the time. You may also want to gently ring a bell at the beginning and end of your meditation.
Place your hands on your knees in Jnana Mudra (index and thumb touching), with palms facing up to open your awareness or palms facing down to calm the mind. Scan your body and relax any tension. Let your spine rise from the base of the pelvis. Draw your chin slightly down and let the back of your neck lengthen. Now plant the seeds for meditating on the lotus of the heart.
Begin by quietly reading this passage from the Upanishads:
"Bright but hidden, the Self dwells in the heart. Everything that moves, breathes, opens, and closes lives in the Self-the source of love. Realize the Self hidden in the heart and cut asunder the knot of ignorance here and now."
As you inhale, draw your awareness from the base of the pelvis to the center of the chest. As you exhale, concentrate on the sensations that you feel in your chest. Stay with those sensations and allow your awareness to deepen. Do you feel heat, tingling, lightness, density, tightness? As you inhale, breathe into your heart.
Begin to visualize a lotus flower inside your chest that is gently spreading its petals open with each inhalation. And as you exhale, just dwell inside the lotus flower. (Note: If visualizing a lotus flower is too poetic for you, an alternative is to focus on a cave in the heart with a flame in the center, or a fire illuminating your heart.)
You may choose to stay with visualization of the lotus or you may focus on the sensation of an expanding heart. When feelings arise, allow them to pass through you like the changing light of the day, or imagine them resting on the flower like water on its petals. Dwell inside the lotus of your heart, feeling the qualities of unconditional love emerge.
When you are ready, bring your hands together in Anjali Mudra (Salutation Seal) and complete your meditation with a moment of gratitude, reflection, or prayer to integrate the energy of your meditation into your life. You can bring your awareness to your heart anytime throughout the day to come back to the seat of unconditional love.
The hand gestures of Yoga. Hasta means ‘hand’ and Mudra means both ‘hand’ and ‘seal’. Mudras enhance energy flow and are used to align, calm, purify and concentrate. Their ultimate aim is to help the practitioner realise his or her full potential as a human being. Some mudras are physical postures or gestures of hand, face or foot. The hasta mudras enhance meditation and pranayama.
The gesture of salutation. Hands are held palm to palm in front of the centre of the chest.
The traditional mudra for meditation, symbolising ego and spirit (Atman) in harmony. Hands rest upwards on knees or thighs, thumb and index finger together, the other fingers straight.
THE HASTA MUDRAS OF PRANAYAMA
These mudras are used to emphasise and improve the effects of breath-control. Energy flow is increased to diaphragm, intercostal and clavicular areas as desired. The full lung breath is controlled by a fourth Mudra.
Index finger and thumb touching, three fingers extended. Hands are placed palm down and fingers slightly inwards on thighs below the groin area, elbows turned slightly out, shoulders relaxed. Used to control diaphragmatic breathing.
Chin Maya Mudra
As for Chin Mudra except three fingers are folded in palm. Used to control intercostal or middle section breathing.
Thumb folded in palm and four fingers closed over thumb. Hands placed palm down and turned slightly inwards as for Chin Mudra. Used to control clavicular or upper section breathing.
As for Adhi Mudra but hands are turned upward, knuckle to knuckle just under the ‘v’ shaped of the ribcage on upper diaphragm area. Used to control the full lung breath.
Hasta Mudras should be used with care, preferably under the guidance of an experienced teacher. When used either for meditation or pranayama, no strain or discomfort should be experienced.
With our modern emphasis on the physical practice of asana it’s hard to believe that for thousands of years yoga was a completely mental practice. The ancient yogis explored the inner workings of the mind (not the body!) in their quest to understand the nature of reality and how to attain enlightenment. In doing so, they identified what they believed to be the source of unhappiness and blocks to achieving samadhi. They believed through properly utilizing antarkarana, or the four functions of a yogi’s mind — manas, chitta, ahamkara and buddhi — a yogi’s quest for enlightenment could be realized.
Philosophy In Shakespeare
Introduction to Shakespeare's Sonnets
The Sonnets are Shakespeare's most popular works, and a few of them have become the most widely-read poems in all of English literature.
A sonnet is a 14-line poem that rhymes in a particular pattern. In Shakespeare's sonnets, the rhyme pattern is abab cdcd efef gg, with the final couplet used to summarize the previous 12 lines or present a surprise ending. The sonnet is further subdivided into an octave (first 8 lines) and a sestet (remaining 6 lines), with the octave being broadly expositional and the sestet reflective. The end of the octave is often marked by a particular punctuation mark, e.g. a semi colon, which is referred to as the volta or ‘turn’ .The rhythmic pattern of the sonnets is the iambic pentameter. An iamb is a metrical foot consisting of one stressed syllable and one unstressed syllable — as in dah-DUM, dah-DUM dah-DUM dah-DUM dah-DUM. Shakespeare uses five of these in each line, which makes it a pentameter. The sonnet is a difficult art form for the poet because of its restrictions on length and metre.
Composition Date of the Sonnets
Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets, likely composed over an extended period from 1592 to 1598, the year in which Francis Meres commented : “The witty soul of Ovid lives in mellifluous & honey-tongued Shakespeare, witness his Venus and Adonis, his Lucrece, his sugared sonnets among his private friends...” In 1609 Thomas Thorpe published Shakespeare's sonnets, no doubt without the author's permission, in quarto format, along with Shakespeare's long poem, The Passionate Pilgrim. The sonnets were dedicated to a W. H., whose identity remains a mystery, although William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke, is frequently suggested because Shakespeare's First Folio (1623) was also dedicated to him.
Narrative of the Sonnets
The majority of the sonnets (1-126) are addressed to a young man, with whom the poet has an intense romantic relationship. The poet spends the first seventeen sonnets trying to convince the young man to marry and have children; beautiful children that will look just like their father, ensuring his immortality. Many of the remaining sonnets in the young man sequence focus on the power of poetry and pure love to defeat death and "all oblivious enmity" (55.9).
The final sonnets (127-154) are addressed to a promiscuous and scheming woman known to modern readers as the dark lady. Both the poet and his young man have become obsessed with the raven-haired temptress in these sonnets, and the poet's whole being is at odds with his insatiable "sickly appetite" (147.4). The tone is distressing, with language of sensual feasting, uncontrollable urges, and sinful consumption.
An alternative reading of the sonnets sees Shakespeare as a fully-realised yogi who is addressing his verse to the Eternal Self, the Lord of life, or Brahman, and not to individual people. If we approach the sonnets with this perspective, they take on a whole new life and meaning :
‘As soon as we take it into consideration according to the Gita’s philosophy of Purusha and Prakriti , our problem regarding the identity of the ‘fair boy’ and ‘Dark Lady’ is solved. The sonneteer appears a perfect disciple of the integral Yoga of the Gita. In his sonnets all the disciplines of yoga exist in perfection.’
‘The Sonnets are an exposition of the inner workings of a yogic mind and heart. The personality of the sonneteer as it appears in the hymns abounds in the truth of his inner soul free from attachment to the objects of senses, ego and desire… When we study the Sonnets in its entirety, there emerges perfect evidence to view them as a divinely displayed work-out of the teachings of the Gita.
‘Shakespeare is chosen as a divine instrument, a divine worker, for he is the seer of the Self or the Soul. In his hymns, he sets conceivable examples of God’s presence as the universal Self in all visible objects.’
‘Shakespeare is a well-versed Yogi living inwardly. He is being guided by the Lord’s message : “When one does not get attached to objects of the senses or to works and has renounced all will and desire in the mind, then he is said to have ascended to the top of Yoga.”
Yoga nidra (Sanskrit: योग निद्रा) or "yogic sleep" is a state of consciousness between waking and sleeping, like the "going-to-sleep" stage. It is a state in which the body is completely relaxed, and the practitioner becomes systematically and increasingly aware of the inner world by following a set of (audio) instructions.
This state of consciousness (yoga nidra) differs from meditation, in which concentration on a single focus is required. In yoga nidra the practitioner remains in a state of light pratyahara with four of his senses internalised, that is, withdrawn, and only the hearing still connects to the instructions. The yogic goals of both paths - deep relaxation (yoga nidra) and meditation - are the same, a state called samadhi.
Yoga nidra is among the deepest possible states of relaxation while still maintaining full consciousness. In lucid dreaming, one is only, or mainly, cognizant of the dream environment, and has little or no awareness of one's actual environment. The practice of yoga relaxation has been found to reduce tension and anxiety. The autonomic symptoms of high anxiety such as headache, giddiness, chest pain, palpitations, sweating and abdominal pain respond well. It has been used to help soldiers from war cope with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yoga nidra refers to the conscious awareness of the deep sleep state, referred to as prajna in Mandukya Upanishad. To read the full article, go to : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoga_nidra
by Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati.
We may believe in one or the other of the philosophies of Dualism or Non-Dualism. We may see these philosophies as either contradictory or complementary.
However, when we want food or sex, or feel threatened, we automatically respond from Dualism, not Non-Dualism. If we watch a person die, or look at a corpse, are we not all struck by the mystery of apparent matter and consciousness? The higher truth quickly goes out the window in such moments and we find we are faced squarely with the Dualistic, conditioned response of the stuff of our mind.
There is something between us and Truth, the Absolute Reality, and that is called the mind. Training the mind is the starting point for Patanjali, in the Yoga Sutras. For example, one of the first things he talks about is observing which of our thoughts are useful or not useful, positive or negative. Then he directs us to learn to make choices in life on the basis of what is positive and helpful in our growth, choosing to do that which we know leads towards a stable, inner state of tranquility. Such self-observation, self-examination, and self-training are necessary in preparation for the deeper practices.
The Dualism of the Yoga Sutra gives us detailed instructions on how to clear away the clutter so we can find the door. Non-Dualistic Vedanta philosophy gives us a sound contemplative base for deeper understanding of the nature of the door and that which is beyond. Tantra shows us how to open the door, as well as how and where to knock.
To view these as contradictory leads to confusion. To view them as complementary leads to freedom. We can apply the Dualistic and Non-Dualistic philosophies as different aspects of the same one journey within, which eventually leads to the direct experience of the center of consciousness, wherein all these questions are resolved and dissolved.
What’s The Dualism/Non-Dualism Distinction All About?
Dvaita means two or dual, and Advaita means not-two or non-dual. Whether or not a spiritual philosophy is dualist or non-dual makes a huge difference in terms of how it formulates our relationship to the world, the meaning of life, the nature of reality, why we are engaging in certain practices, what we are seeking to realize.
Just think of the (dualist) Christian idea of a soul that either goes to Heaven or Hell upon death based on one’s relationship to an invisible transcendent God. Think of the (more non-dual) pagan idea, which the Christians sought to suppress, of God(s) as existing in the natural world and of festivals that celebrated nature, the body, sexuality etc.. Consider the lack of a God in Buddhism, and the emphasis instead on one’s inner psychospiritual development.
In Western philosophy, dualism generally refers to Mind/Body dualism which we are most familiar with as the belief that there is an immaterial soul (or mind) distinct from and able to be independent of the body at death. Very few modern philosophers, biologists or other scientists find Mind/Body dualism convincing, and instead see the mind (or Consciousness) as being entirely dependent upon the mortal physical body.
The Relationship of Consciousness and Matter
This is where it can all get a little tricky, so here’s a simple key:
Samkhya (dualist) – Consciousness (Purusha) and Matter (Prakriti) are two distinct things, there is no God.
Patanjali’s Classical Yoga (dualist) – Consciousness and Matter are two distinct things, there is a God – by becoming identified with Purusha (Consciousness) and disentangling oneself from the phenomenal/material world, or Prakriti – including the body and mind, one can come to know God.
Advaita Vedanta (provisional non-dualist) – God is the all-pervading, ever-present nature of all things, Purusha and Prakriti are one – but we live in a world of illusion or Maya, in which we are unable to see this until we awaken.
Tantra – (non- dual) Everything that exists is a manifestation of the one Reality that is pure consciousness and bliss. Prakriti evolves through all the forms of the material world without ever losing it’s nature as pure consciousness (Purusha).
In Samkhya, the dualism (which Patanjali follows) is between Purusha (the Self/Seer/Soul/Consciousness) and Prakriti (the World/Matter/Nature). This is also an expression of a duality between the physical body and a proposed non-physical soul, and so falls into what in Western philosophy is called Mind/Body dualism, although Samkhya (and Patanjali’s Sutra) go one step further in proclaiming that Purusha is indeed distinct even from the mind. We seek to become dis-identified with Prakriti and identified with Purusha. An interesting difference between Samkhya and Patanjali is that the former denies the existence of God, whereas Patanjali (as we shall see) says that purpose of Yoga is to come to an awareness of God.
Advaita Vedanta differs from this dualism in it’s assertion that there is only God (or Purusha) – that everything, including the world and the Self are in essence one with God, but that the world of appearances casts a veil of illusion, or Maya, over the ever-present, all-pervading Divine. So unlike the radical dualism that says God and The World are two completely different things – this position says it’s all God, but until we pierce the veil of illusion we cannot see this. The fault therefore is within us – not in the world of phenomena.
Tantra, on the other hand, sees Prakriti as evolving through the forms of the world while maintaining it’s pure nature as consciousness itself. Not only is it all God, a la Adveita Vedanta, but even the illusion is God – everything is indeed a perfect expression of the Divine. Tantra is a radical non-dualism in that it challenges conventional notions of sacred and profane and seeks to affirm everything that is – hence the breaking of taboos and embrace of sexuality for which it is mostly well known in the West.
These three (or four, if we include Patanjali’s Samkhya + God formulation) different belief systems about the relationship of Consciousness to Matter are at the heart of Indian philosophy.
Benedictine Monk Laurence Freeman OSB talks about what meditation is and provides a simple meditation technique that Christians, or anyone, can practice. Father Laurence describes the primary experience and nature of meditation, and outlines a simple but effective method using a sacred word or mantra.See the full article + video on : http://www.meditationplex.com/christian-meditation/simple-christian-meditation-instruction-laurence-freeman/
Written by Swami Veda Bharati
From childhood we are trained to see, examine, and verify things in the external world, but initiation, or receiving a mantra, is a step for seeing and looking within. It is not a religious ceremony. Do not confuse a mantra or meditation with religion; they are entirely different.
A mantra is a sound, a syllable, or a set of sounds. It is known not by its meaning, but by its vibrations. It provides a focus for the mind and helps one become aware of his or her internal states. It is a way to understand one’s self and to coordinate one’s external and internal words.
The mantra is a friend that helps the mind become one pointed and slowly leads the student to a deep state of silence, to the Center of Consciousness within. It is a spiritual seed sown in the soil of the self. It is a therapeutic guide that leads one through various levels of being and finally to the unity between individual and Cosmic Consciousness.
The Mantra is an important means on the path of Self Enlightenment. You are encouraged to practice meditation regularly, to remember your mantra, and to make it part of your life.
When meditating, use the mantra silently and consciously. At other times, you can use it consciously or unconsciously. In time you will find your mantra guiding you in daily life.